PROBLEMS OF CREATION OF AIRCRAFT CATEGORY PLANES ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIMITATIONS

Александр Васильевич Лось, Виктор Иванович Рябков, Татьяна Николаевна Середа

Abstract


With the growth of air transportation on airplanes of the transport category, their negative impact on the environment and humans increases.

The environmental impact of civil aviation began to be addressed in the early 70s of the 20th century. There are three critical areas of impact: the surface layer of the atmosphere, where aerodrome emission is important, the upper troposphere at an altitude of about 10 km, where cruise flights of civilian aircraft take place, and not so long ago, the lower stratosphere (10…22 km), where, as expected, must be cruising the flight of supersonic transport of the future. In the first zone, the effect is direct damage to human health. In the second, aviation affects climate change. In the third zone, the ozone layer may be depleted as a result of aviation exposure.

ICAO has established strict restrictions on all types of harmful effects, which are stipulated in our country in AP-25 and AP-36. It is noted that these requirements are constantly being tightened, as a result of which the noise level of the world fleet of aircraft over the past half-century has decreased by more than 30 percent.

The article discusses the scheme of creating an aircraft taking into account environmental restrictions and economic costs to the level of decision-making on these problematic issues.

The implementation of this approach in domestic aircraft construction is the creation of its modification, the An-132D, based on the An-32B aircraft. With an increase in the carrying capacity and range of this modification by re-arranging the wing-tail + tail assembly system of bearing surfaces, as well as replacing the power plant, it was possible to significantly reduce the fuel efficiency of this modification to 222 g / t km, which is the highest indicator for light vehicles airplanes. This means that An-132D has the least impact on greenhouse gas emissions and emissions.

Besides, An-132D has several other advantages:

- variable revolutions of the propeller Nвв = 850 … 1200 rpm;

- “silent taxiing” at Nвв = 850 rpm within the aerodrome;

- emergency operation of the main engine in case of failure of one of the two, not only during take-off but also, if necessary, on the route;

- significantly better environmental indicators for harmful emissions of the marching engine and noise on the ground.

An-132D is an implemented example of creating a transport category aircraft taking into account environmental restrictions.

 


Keywords


aircraft of the transport category; noise; harmful emissions; environmental impact; design restrictions

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.32620/aktt.2020.7.01

Copyright (c) 2020 Александр Васильевич Лось, Виктор Иванович Рябков, Татьяна Николаевна Середа